Three main costs for pothole patching for agencies are material, labor and equipment. The cost of purchasing material is one of the most common focus points, but the least significant factor to the overall patching operation. Replacing a pothole just once doubles the cost. Some potholes are re-repaired on a weekly basis. Temporary designs will not perform like UPM. The secret is the process: controlling aggregate, asphalt, additives and manufacturing. An asphalt film on the rock makes the rock black; having the optimum film makes it permanent. Those interested in lowering total maintenance costs should approach pothole repair as permanent and not as a temporary fix.